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isbn:
9781891136481
IM: 9781891136498
2023
328 pages
paperback
photos and illustrations

suggested list price: $105.00

price to college bookstores:
$84.00

 

 

Coming May 2023!

Argumentation
Understanding and Shaping Arguments

seventh edition

James A. Herrick
Hope College

CONTENTS

BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface

PART I: GOALS, SKILLS, AND FUNCTIONS OF ARGUMENTATION 

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Argumentation

Chapter 2: The Elements of Arguments 

Chapter 3: Tools for Analyzing Arguments

PART II: THE CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTIVE ARGUMENTATION 

Chapter 4: Ethical Advocates and the Rights of Audiences 

Chapter 5: Reasonable Arguments, Reasonable People 

PART III: SUPPORT: THE CONTENT OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 6: Evaluating Evidence 

Chapter 7: Locating and Evaluating Sources of Evidence 

Chapter 8: Using Statistics as Evidence 

Chapter 9: Using Testimony as Evidence 

PART IV: VALIDITY: THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 10: Validity in Conditional and Enumeration Arguments 

Chapter 11: Validity in Categorical Arguments 

PART V: LINGUISTIC CONSISTENCY: LANGUAGE IN ARGUMENT 

Chapter 12: Definition in Argument 

Chapter 13: Ambiguity, Equivocation, and Other Language Considerations 

PART VI: TYPES AND TESTS OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 14: Analogies, Examples, Metonymy, and Narratives 

Chapter 15: Reasoning about Causes 

Chapter 16: Moral and Practical Arguments 

Chapter 17: Essential Nature Arguments 

Chapter 18: Fallacies and Appeals 

APPENDICES: DEVELOPING AND ADAPTING YOUR CASE 

Appendix A: Policy Case Construction: The Structure of Debate 

Appendix B: Adapting Arguments to an Audience 

Glossary

Index

About the Author

 

CONTENTS (detailed)

Preface   

PART I: GOALS, SKILLS, AND FUNCTIONS OF ARGUMENTATION

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Argumentation 

Argumentation in a Democratic Society 

Advocacy, Power, and Free Societies

Argumentation in a Pluralistic Culture

The Internet and Public Discourse

Goals of Studying Argument 

What Arguments Do: Persuade, Justify, Discover 

The Place of Values in Argument 

Agreement and Cooperation in Argumentation

A Commitment to Ethical Advocacy 

Chapter 2: The Elements of Arguments

Arguments: Conclusions and Their Reasons 

Assertion vs. Argument 

Identifying Reasons and Conclusions 

Two Types of Reasons: Evidence and Connectives 

Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy 

Propositions of Fact 

Propositions of Value

Propositions of Policy 

Chapter 3: Tools for Analyzing Arguments 

When Arguments Are and Are Not Likely 

When We Expect Arguments 

When We Don’t Expect Arguments 

Deductive and Inductive Arguments 

Three Tools for Analyzing Arguments 

Tool 1: Scanning 

Tool 2: Standardizing 

Tool 3: Diagramming 

The Toulmin Model and the Hidden Elements of Arguments 

Digital Public Discourse 

PART II: THE CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTIVE ARGUMENTATION 

Chapter 4: Ethical Advocates and the Rights of Audiences 

Argumentation, Advocacy, and Ethics 

Argument Ethics and Social Pluralism 

Some Approaches to Argument Ethics 

Virtues in Argumentation 

The Rights of Audiences

The Public as Audience

Chapter 5: Reasonable Arguments, Reasonable People 

Reasonable Arguments 

Support 

Validity 

Linguistic Consistency 

Reasonable People 

Responding to Arguments 

PART III: SUPPORT: THE CONTENT OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 6: Evaluating Evidence 

Evidence and Values 

General Tests of Evidence 

Accessibility: Is the Evidence Available? 

Credibility: Is the Source of the Evidence Reliable? 

Internal Consistency: Does the Evidence Contradict Itself? 

External Consistency: Does the Evidence Contradict Other Evidence? 

Recency: Is the Evidence Up to Date? 

Relevance: Does the Evidence Bear on the Conclusion? 

Adequacy: Is the Evidence Sufficient to Support Its Claim? 

Recognizing Conspiracy Theories

Why Conspiracy Theories Gain a Following

The Risks of Conspiracy Theories

The Marks of Conspiracy Theories

Conspiracy Theories and the Tests of Evidence

Evaluating Visual Evidence 

Interpreting Evidence 

Interpreting for Clarity 

Interpreting to Support a Conclusion 

Chapter 7: Locating and Evaluating Sources of Evidence 

Sources of Evidence 

Periodicals 

Books 

Television 

Interviews 

The Internet 

Podcasts 

Ascertaining a Source’s Political Perspective 

Chapter 8: Using Statistics as Evidence 

Record-Keeping 

Sampling and Generalization 

Representativeness of Samples 

Interpreting Statistics 

Means, Modes, Medians, and Misleading Statistics 

Interpreting for Prediction 

Interpreting for Clarity and Impact 

Chapter 9: Using Testimony as Evidence 

Types of Testimony 

Lay Testimony 

Expert Testimony 

Combining Testimony with Statistical Evidence 

Biased, Reluctant, and Unbiased Testimony 

Guidelines for Using Testimony as Evidence 

PART IV: VALIDITY: THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 10: Validity in Conditional and Enumeration Arguments 

Validity in Conditional Reasoning 

Testing Validity in a Conditional Argument 

Maintaining Consistent Wording 

Negative Conditions 

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 

The Argument from Direction: A Special Case of Conditional Reasoning

Validity in Enumerative Reasoning 

Testing Validity in Enumeration Arguments 

Testing the Enumerated Options 

Disjunctives and Dilemmas 

Chapter 11: Validity in Categorical Arguments 

Terms and Their Distribution 

Distribution in Other Types of Statements 

Conversion 

Categorical Arguments: Rules of Validity 

Applying the Rules of Validity 

Abbreviated Categorical Arguments 

PART V: LINGUISTIC CONSISTENCY: LANGUAGE IN ARGUMENT 

Chapter 12: Definition in Argument 

Definition Reports: Defining for Clarity and Emphasis 

Argumentative Definitions 

Argumentative Definitions and Categorical Reasoning 

Strategies of Definition 

Euphemism 

Reclassification 

Labeling 

Evaluating Definitions 

Sources of Definitions 

Common Usage 

Etymology 

Paradigm Case 

Original Intent 

Authority 

Chapter 13: Ambiguity, Equivocation, and Other Language Considerations 

Ambiguity 

Equivocation 

Other Language Considerations 

Redundancy 

Mixed Metaphor 

Choosing the Wrong Word 

Misusing a Common Expression 

PART VI: TYPES AND TESTS OF ARGUMENTS 

Chapter 14: Analogies, Examples, Metonymy, and Narratives 

Analogies 

Literal Analogies 

Metaphors or Figurative Analogies 

Arguments from Example 

Metonymy 

Narrative Arguments 

Narrative Arguments: Pros and Cons 

Protagonists, Values, and Worldviews 

Testing Narrative Arguments 

Chapter 15: Reasoning about Causes 

Arguments Advancing Hypotheses 

The Structure of Arguments Advancing Hypotheses 

Developing a Hypothesis 

Evaluating a Hypothesis 

Arguments from Sign 

Arguments for Cause by Analogy 

Arguments for Cause by Enumeration 

Arguments Generalizing about Cause 

Reasoning from Correlation Alone 

The Post Hoc Fallacy 

Observational vs. Randomized Studies 

Chapter 16: Moral and Practical Arguments 

Pragmatic and Principle Arguments 

Pragmatic Arguments 

Arguments from Principle 

Arguments from Quantity and Quality 

Arguments from Quantity 

Arguments from Quality 

Chapter 17: Essential Nature Arguments 

Genetic Arguments 

Testing the Genetic Argument 

Arguments from Intent 

Testing the Argument from Intent 

Arguments from Function 

Testing the Argument from Function 

Sources of Function 

Person/Act Arguments 

Testing the Person/Act Argument 

Charging Inconsistency 

Visual Arguments from Essential Nature 

Evaluating Visual Arguments  

Activism as Argument

Evaluating Activism

Chapter 18: Fallacies and Appeals 

Fallacies 

Fallacies of Faulty Assumption 

Fallacies Directed to the Person 

Fallacies of Case Presentation 

Fallacies of Suggestion 

Appeals 

Appeals to Authority 

Emotional Appeals 

Reductio Ad Absurdum 

APPENDICES: DEVELOPING AND ADAPTING YOUR CASE 

Appendix A: Policy Case Construction: The Structure of Debate 

Informing and Persuading 

Presumption and Burden of Proof 

Stock Issues 

Sample Essay Analysis 

Analysis of Introduction 

Analysis of the Case for Need

Analysis of Policy Case

Appendix B: Adapting Arguments to an Audience 

Demographic Analysis 

Values Analysis 

Dispositional Analysis 

A Case Study in Audience Adaptation 

Glossary 

Index 

About the Author

 

 

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