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isbn:
9781891136344
IM: 9781891136351
2015
309 pages
paperback
photos and illustrations

suggested list price: $102.50
price to college bookstores:
$82.00

 

 

New edition!

Argumentation
Understanding and Shaping Arguments

fifth edition

James A. Herrick
Hope College

CONTENTS

PART I:  GOALS, SKILLS, AND FUNCTIONS OF ARGUMENTATION

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Argumentation

Chapter 2: The Elements of Arguments

Chapter 3: Tools for Analyzing Arguments

PART II: THE CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTIVE ARGUMENTATION

Chapter 4: Ethical Advocacy

Chapter 5: Reasonable Arguments, Reasonable People

PART III: SUPPORT: THE CONTENT OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 6: Evaluating Evidence

Chapter 7: Locating and Evaluating Sources of Evidence

Chapter 8: Using Statistics as Evidence

Chapter 9: Using Testimony as Evidence

PART IV: VALIDITY: THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 10: Validity in Conditional and Enumeration Arguments

Chapter 11: Validity in Categorical Arguments

PART V: LINGUISTIC CONSISTENCY: LANGUAGE IN ARGUMENT

Chapter 12: Definition in Argument

Chapter 13: Ambiguity, Equivocation, and Other Language Considerations

PART VI: TYPES AND TESTS OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 14: Analogies, Examples, Metonymy, and Narratives

Chapter 15: Reasoning about Causes

Chapter 16: Moral and Practical Arguments

Chapter 17: Essential Nature Arguments

Chapter 18: Fallacies and Appeals

APPENDICES: DEVELOPING AND ADAPTING YOUR CASE

Appendiix: Policy Case Construction: The Structure of Arguments

Appendix B: Adapting Arguments to an Audience

Glossary

Index

 

CONTENTS (detailed)

PART I: GOALS, SKILLS, AND FUNCTIONS OF ARGUMENTATION

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Argumentation

Argumentation in a Free and Pluralistic Society

Advocacy, Power, and Free Societies

Argumentation in a Pluralistic Culture

The Internet and Public Discourse

Goals of Studying Argument

What Arguments Do: Persuade, Justify, Discover

The Place of Values in Argument

Agreement and Cooperation in Argumentation

A Commitment to Ethical Advocacy

Chapter 2: The Elements of Arguments

Arguments: Conclusions and Their Reasons

Assertion vs. Argument

Identifying Reasons and Conclusions

Two Types of Reasons: Evidence and Connectives

Propositions of Fact, Value, and Policy

Propositions of Fact

Propositions of Value

Propositions of Policy

Chapter 3: Tools for Analyzing Arguments

When Arguments Are and Are Not Likely

When We Expect Arguments

When We Donít Expect Arguments

Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Three Tools for Analyzing Arguments

Tool 1: Scanning

Tool 2: Standardizing

Tool 3: Diagramming

The Toulmin Model and the Hidden Elements of Arguments

Digital Public Discourse

PART II: THE CONDITIONS OF CONSTRUCTIVE ARGUMENTATION

Chapter 4: Ethical Advocacy

Argumentation, Advocacy, and Ethics

Argument Ethics and Social Pluralism

Some Approaches to Argument Ethics

Virtues in Argumentation

Chapter 5: Reasonable Arguments, Reasonable People

Reasonable Arguments

Support

Validity

Linguistic Consistency

Reasonable People

Responding to Arguments

PART III: SUPPORT: THE CONTENT OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 6: Evaluating Evidence

Evidence and Values

General Tests of Evidence

Accessibility: Is the Evidence Available?

Credibility: Is the Source of the Evidence Reliable?

Internal Consistency: Does the Evidence Contradict Itself?

External Consistency: Does the Evidence Contradict Other Evidence?

Recency: Is the Evidence Up-to-Date?

Relevance: Does the Evidence Bear on the Conclusion?

Adequacy: Is the Evidence Sufficient to Support Its Claim?

Evaluating Visual Evidence

Interpreting Evidence

Interpreting for Clarity

Interpreting to Support a Conclusion

Chapter 7: Locating and Evaluating Sources of Evidence

Sources of Evidence

Periodicals

Books

Television

Interviews

The Internet

Evaluating Internet Sites

Ascertaining a Sourceís Political Perspective

Chapter 8: Using Statistics as Evidence

Record-Keeping

Sampling and Generalization

Representativeness of Samples

Interpreting Statistics

Means, Modes, Medians, and Misleading Statistics

Interpreting for Prediction

Interpreting for Clarity and Impact

Chapter 9: Using Testimony as Evidence

Types of Testimony

Lay Testimony

Expert Testimony

Combining Testimony with Statistical Evidence

Biased, Reluctant, and Unbiased Testimony

Guidelines for Using Testimony as Evidence

PART IV: VALIDITY: THE STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 10: Validity in Conditional and Enumeration Arguments

Validity in Conditional Reasoning

Testing Validity in a Conditional Argument

Maintaining Consistent Wording

Negative Conditions

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

The Argument from Direction: A Special Case of Conditional Reasoning

Validity in Enumerative Reasoning

Testing Validity in Enumeration Arguments

Testing the Enumerated Options

Disjunctives and Dilemmas

Chapter 11: Validity in Categorical Arguments

Terms and Their Distribution

Distribution in Other Types of Statements

Conversion

Categorical Arguments: Rules of Validity

Applying the Rules of Validity

Abbreviated Categorical Arguments

PART V: LINGUISTIC CONSISTENCY: LANGUAGE IN ARGUMENT

Chapter 12: Definition in Argument

Definition Reports: Defining for Clarity and Emphasis

Argumentative Definitions

Argumentative Definitions and Categorical Reasoning

Strategies of Definition

Euphemism

Reclassification

Labeling

Evaluating Definitions

Sources of Definitions

Common Usage

Etymology

Paradigm Case

Original Intent

Authority

Chapter 13: Ambiguity, Equivocation, and Other Language Considerations

Ambiguity

Equivocation

Other Language Considerations

Redundancy

Mixed Metaphor

Choosing the Wrong Word

Misusing a Common Expression

PART VI: TYPES AND TESTS OF ARGUMENTS

Chapter 14: Analogies, Examples, Metonymy, and Narratives

Analogies

Literal Analogies

Metaphors or Figurative Analogies

Arguments from Example

Metonymy

Narrative Arguments

Narrative Argument: Pros and Cons

Protagonists, Values, and Worldviews

Testing Narrative Arguments

Chapter 15: Reasoning about Causes

Arguments Advancing Hypotheses

The Structure of Arguments Advancing Hypotheses

Developing a Hypothesis

Evaluating a Hypothesis

Arguments from Sign

Arguments for Cause by Analogy

Arguments for Cause by Enumeration

Arguments Generalizing about Cause

Reasoning from Correlation Alone

The Post Hoc Fallacy

Observational vs. Randomized Studies

Chapter 16: Moral and Practical Arguments

Pragmatic and Principle Arguments

Pragmatic Arguments

Arguments from Principle

Arguments from Quantity and Quality

Arguments from Quantity

Arguments from Quality

Chapter 17: Essential Nature Arguments

Genetic Arguments

Testing the Genetic Argument

Arguments from Intent

Testing the Argument from Intent

Arguments from Function

Testing the Argument from Function

Sources of Function

Person/Act Arguments

Testing the Person/Act Argument

Charging Inconsistency

Visual Arguments from Essential Nature

Evaluating Visual Arguments from Essential Nature

Chapter 18: Fallacies and Appeals

Fallacies

Fallacies of Faulty Assumption

Fallacies Directed to the Person

Fallacies of Case Presentation

Fallacies of Suggestion

Appeals

Appeals to Authority

Emotional Appeals

Reductio Ad Absurdum

APPENDICES: DEVELOPING AND ADAPTING YOUR CASE

Appendix A: Policy Case Construction: The Structure of Debate

Informing and Persuading

Presumption and Burden of Proof

Stock Issues

Sample Essay Analysis

Preparing an Introduction

Establishing a Problem

Advancing a Plan or Solution

Answering Counter-Arguments

Suggesting Benefits and Concluding

Appendix B: Adapting Arguments to an Audience

Demographic Analysis

Values Analysis

Dispositional Analysis A

Case Study in Audience Adaptation

Glossary

Index

 

 

 

 

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